THE WORLD OF INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP)
The Internet Protocol, IP, is a unique address that is assigned to each computer and device connected to the network and that identifies us on the Internet for the other servers and devices connected to it. All these addresses are available to all users and are registered in different databases, which allows us, for example, to easily collect information about these IP addresses.
When we look for an IP address, for example, from a server that has tried to connect to our computer or from a web page through a DNS query, the only thing we will see is a series of digits, separated into 4 groups, which can go from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255. However, although at first glance these directions do not tell us anything, using tools like the ones we are going to see below it is possible to get a lot of information about them.
There is no device in the world that can communicate with another without having an IP. IP addresses are the numerical names that are assigned to a device as a “license plate” so that it can be called by other devices. There are two types of IP: public IP addresses and private IP addresses.
Both public and private IP addresses are built in four number blocks . Each block is a number from 0 to 255 and is separated by a period (“.”). For example, a public IP address could be 18.104.22.168 and a private IP address, 192.168.0.11
So, in RFC 1597 and its final successor RFC1918, address ranges for use in private networks were described. These are class spaces A, B, and C.
A: 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 (10/8 prefix)
B: 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 (172.16 / 12 prefix)
C: 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 (192.168 / 16 prefix)
So, as it is common for people to start counting from one, almost all router manufacturers began to use 192.168.0.1 or 192.168.1.1 for the main address of the router. So, 192.168.0.0 is the first private address space, and the first IP used in it is 192.168.0.1.
In our detailed discussion we will discuss different IP protocols one by one and dig deep into their characteristics ,functionalities and details.
192.168.0.1 login to the router by admin admin:
It is this address that the router manufacturers have chosen: TP-Link, D-Link, Zyxel Tenda, Sitecom and others. So, in the browser, enter 192.168.0.1 and then admin admin (login information), and you will be taken to the router control menu.
TP-Link: tplinklogin.net, tplinkwifi.net, tplinkmodem.net
If it still does not connect, then there are few options – either the router is broken, or you have the wrong network settings. I can’t do anything remotely with a broken router, but you can figure out the settings. Let’s first “ping” it, will it respond?
Click Win + R – We enter cmd- Writing ping 192.168.0.1
Pay attention to the response time – if you answer, then you are doing something wrong. In this case, the router is available and waiting for your connection. If not, then we begin to delve into the settings, maybe earlier you once set them manually, but now you need to make an automatic connection.
Exploring 192.168.1.1 Login:
Many of the ADSL routers and modems uses 192.168.1.1 as default ip address. However, there are also many modem manufacturers, routers do not use the 192.168.1.1 address as the default login address such as 192.168.0.1 or 10.0.0.1 , therefore, it is not that common compared to 192.168.1.0.
What can you do with 192.168.1.1?
You can access the router by enter 192.168.1.1 in the address bar of your browser By visiting the router administration panel , you can adjust some of the options related to: IP Qos, DNS, Proxy, LAN, WAN, network administration, security options, WLAN settings, PPPoE, MAC WPS, DSL and DHCP client .
How to log in to 192.168.1.1?
First connect your router and then open the web browser and enter 192.168.1.1/ in the address bar of your browser. If 19216811 is not the IP address of your router, look for the IP address of your router in this article.
Enter your username and password to login.
In case you do not remember your username and password in detail, you can use the reset button by pressing it for 10 seconds to restore the default username and password.
192.168.8.1 (Private Network):
The IP address http://192.168.8.1 is registered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) as a part of private network 192.168.8.0/24. IP addresses in the private space are not assigned to any specific organization and anybody may use these IP addresses without the consent of a regional Internet registry as described in RFC 1918, unlike public IP addresses.
The IP address 192.168.8.1 is used to enter the WiFi configuration and change the password on some modems and some devices that are used as an ADSL and Hostpot connection type, such as Huawei, Alcatel, Globe, Claro, Orange and other known brands. The way to access is by entering from the top bar of the browser by typing http://192.168.8.1/ and pressing ENTER. When you do that you will see a page that may ask you for a username and password.
Some Brands With Default Gateway 192.168.8.1:
Some modem brands that use this default gateway are the Huawei B3000, Huawei B660, Huawei B310, Huawei B68l-25, Huawei e5151 and Huawei B3l0s-22.
It should be noted that these are just few names because there are many more and corporate level from different countries with a variety of equipment such as Orange, Vodafone, Movistar, Globe, Three UK, among others are using this protocol.
Localhost (Local Computer):
The localhost is the local computer or device that you are using, and has the IP address 127.0.0.1 assigned. We show you what it is for and how to take advantage of it. Surely on more than one occasion you have heard about the localhost , but you don’t know what it means, or you don’t know its applications.
The localhost service has very interesting utilities, especially if you are going to create a web page, want to learn to program , or are in charge of a local network. Localhost is the name used to designate the computer or device you are using at a given time. It is what the literal translation defines as ” local guest “, but it is more correct to define it as a local device or local server.
Every localhost is assigned the IP address 127.0.0.1 (or :: 1 in IPv6), also called a loopback or reverse loop IP address . It is called that because it allows you to use certain TCP / IP tools (related to web pages) pointing to itself, that is, in local mode, without connecting to the Internet and without leaving the computer.
Using Localhost as a Web Server:
If you configure your computer as a web server , when accessing the localhost (or the address 127.0.0.1 , which as we have said refer to the same) you can enter the web page that you have stored locally , as if it were posted on the Internet, but without being connected and without anyone else being able to access this page. Localhost acts as a standard web page, but access is only available on the local computer, and does not require the Internet. Sometimes it is also called hostname because it is a simple label to nominate the IP address 127.0.0.1
One of the most basic utilities of localhost, is that it helps us to know if we have a web server installed on our computer , that is, if we can use it for other people to access web content that is on our computer, through the Internet . For example, most Macs come with a Phyton web server installing, but on a Windows PC it is not usual.
Open any browser and in the field where you type the web address, type: localhost . You can also use its equivalent 127.0.0.1.
127.0.0.1 (Exist or Illusion):
Many people interpret 127.0.0.1 address similar to Localhost ,but what is called an “loop” address a.k.a 127.0.0.1 is a special IP address that you can send traffic to which you just went right back to yourself. It allow full operation of the ip interface on the host itself, regardless of what the rest of the configuration of the network.
As we mentioned, on a typical computer, it 127.0.0.1 is the same as localhost. If you open the C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hostsfile in Notepad, you can see in the assignment it comes. (And you can change it if you wish, but this is generally not recommended.)
What is the loopback address it is used for? Several things. For example, if you wanted to work on a web page that is being created, but for some reason your computer does not have any wireless or Ethernet Nic, then you might still be able to get to the web page by using a browser to connect a http://127.0.0.1/.
It is basically a local address not host. It is used for local testing on the machine. When you move to Command prompt and ping 127.0.0.1 it will send IP/TCP packets to local IP/TCP layer to check whether the function is working properly or not.
The localhost don’t need Dns resolution since localhost doesn’t needs to be resolved. Whereas vice-versa case in 127.0.0.1 because it is not a host but address. That’s why sometime we encounter that some connections are not working with localhost but with 127.0.0.1 protocol because of the network card intervention.
These IP protocols do not guarantee the arrival of the packet at its destination , but the security of sending it, so it is considered a “best effort” datagram service and a truly modern era revolution in the history of modern web-world.